Overview of the development of high-tech planted aquariums. (Aquarium Landscaping).

The history of planted aquariums, goes back to the beginning of the hobby, which began seriously in the early 1930’s. I managed to gather in my early years in the Hobby magazines, such as Water Life, the Aquarist and others. I remember well reading advertisements for Everglades Aquatic Nurseries. This nursery was founded by A Mr.Greenberg, who ran this company for years, and lived I understand to the age of 90 odd years. They offered a large selection of plants, and presumably many stores and hobbyists bought from them in those and subsequent years. The company still exists today in Florida, and supplies aquatic plants to the trade.However the really serious development of the highly planted aquarium, with a large variety of plants, along with their specialized individual requirements began in the Netherlands, a few years after the war. This development took place with a two or three leading plant growers and importers. Holland was especially well placed to create and be a pioneer in this kind of venture, for two major reasons. Firstly they had the connections from their former colony of what today is Indonesia, where a great many interesting aquatic plants come from. Secondly, the country is foremost in greenhouse cultivation of house plants and much else, so the progression to aquarium plants was natural and a good opportunity. As the production increased, they exported them all over Europe and further a ?eld. Naturalists who discovered new plants and made a specialty of same such as Arie de Graaf, also made their impression on the market, and Holland soon became the premier country for this trade. There are still large producers in Holland, although other developments have taken place from the early seventies onwards. The Hobbyists along with some of the Naturalists, and the Aquarium magazines promoted the keeping of highly planted tanks, and this became known as the Dutch system. However not everyone was able to successfully reproduce the beauty of these aquariums, this no doubt due to the lack of many critical inputs, which were discovered later on by other researchers. Suf?cient numbers did succeed however to keep the interest alive and even to enlarge it.In the early 70’s a Dane by the name of Holger Winderlov began what was at ?rst a small company in Ega Denmark. Holger brought a tremendous attention to detail, and scienti?c

method in rearing a very wide variety of plants (more than 150 species at last count). This company began exporting high quality plants worldwide, and continues to grow to this day. They raise and sell over 2 million plants a year and employ a staff of some 40 persons. This company with it’s excellent quality, made a pro- found impression on the hobby, and in?uenced many developments which were to follow.

Today many if not all of the plants cultivated by the company, begin life using the latest techniques of tis- sue culture, which brings a further re?nement to the quality, for which Holger Winderlov, and his company Tropica has become famous.

Tropica has also made another contribution to the hobby, in having created some important hybrids, some of which are now an accepted part of mainstream plant catalogues all over he world. This is because these -created additions- like so many ?owers, that man has bred genetically, are beautiful and have great appeal to a wide spectrum of hobbyists.

Tropica also made an innovation, in passing on to the aquarists much more detail about what was required to maintain the plants they sold. Needless to say serious hobbyists appreciated this kind of technical advice and help. The next major milestone came a few years later, when a German aquar- ist by the name of Horst Kipper decided to create a company devoted to high technology in planted aquariums, as well as Reef Aquariums. This company is called Dupla Aquaristik., He had cooperated with a Kaspar Horst in the development, of several important new innovations, and this cooperation continued over the next 15 years or more.

Kaspar Horst had been a keen devotee of plants for aquariums, and has several important discover- ies to his credit. These include the problem of iron de?ciency, as well as the use and method of in- troduction of CO2 gas to the aquarium, in a practical manner. In 1976 he with others created a Plant register in Germany, and until 1981 edited a magazine for specialists called Aqua Planta. He went on many expeditions to Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, with devoted hobbyists and sometimes Horst Kipper, with whom he was on excellent terms. Together with Horst Kipper, they wrote a milestone book on planted aquariums called Das Perfekte Aquarium.

Horst Kipper, was a keen aquarist since early childhood. He met Kaspar Horst in 1966, and they cooperated together for several years. At that time Horst Kipper, was running a German Aquarium company which was subsequently taken over by Tetra. In 1977 Horst Kipper founded his own com- pany Dupla Aquaristik in his home town of Melle, and Horst Kipper became a partner. It would seem that it is no coincidence that Melle is not only the home of Tetra, but also of many other famous names in the German Aquarium scene, even today

Anyway the Dupla company had an enormous success for several years, as their high quality and beautiful planted aquariums, and Reef Aquariums, which were shown worldwide at every im- portant trade show, were the envy of the competition and rapidly had devotees in all the important countries. However as Dupla did not produce plants, it made a strategic alliance with Tropica, with the result that in many countries where Dupla sold it’s products, the same agent would also vend the Tropica plants. This cooperation was bene?cial to both parties, as it ensured that high quality technology would be avail- able to those dealers and hobbyists who wished to maintain long lived and beautiful planted aquariums. This coopera- tion led to the next major development in the history of Landscaped Aquariums. Regrettably in 2002 the company Dupla went into bankruptcy. In Germany there was a major grower of aquarium plants called Dennerle. This company was probably the leading producer of Aquarium Plants in what was at the time West Germany. They began to feel a major impact and potential long term threat to their business by the alliance of Dupla & Tropica. Therefore in the early 80’s Dennerle began to create an alternative range of products to Dupla, and of course was then able to offer their customers, the advan- tage of plants and equipment all from the same source. The approach of Dupla and Dennerle differs in some aspects in their suggested technological approach, but it not the purpose of this book, to make a decision for or against either method. Suf?ce it to say, that the major inputs such as CO2 systems, and lighting are not all that different from each other. Both companies have their devotees, just as we do in America, between the consumers of -Coke- or -Pepsi- and other similar competing brands.

Dennerle not only offered a range of products as well as high quality plants, but began to offer sche- matics to their dealers and hobbyists, which showed how to plant in varying combinations to achieve a really spectacular effect. This made it possible for many whom may have lacked artistic skills to reproduce selected scenes with reasonable accuracy. While Dupla entered the market ?rst, and was initially very successful, later on they made many major marketing mistakes, by working with agents who were not reliable, and also by lack of follow through which is vital in a technology based group of products. This was probably accelerated when Horst Kipper, went to live in Australia, and to some extent lost the day to day control of his compa- ny. Dennerle however, was very thorough in his marketing approach, and by the end of the 80’s and early nineties, had an enormous market , not only in Germany and Europe, but also throughout most of the countries of Asia, such as Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, and many others. This tremendous success, led to the next major development.

Japan has a special interest in house plants and related subjects. These plants are ubiquitous in the tiny houses and apartments that are predominant in that country. Japanese housing is typically miniscule compared to US or European, and this minuteness, leads them to be especially creative in decoration to compensate. It is the Japanese after all that developed the art of Bonzai. Japan also had several stores which sold only aquarium plants, these shops do not sell ?sh. This was to the author an astonishing revelation, as nowhere else in the world had I come across such specialized stores. When in 1993 I visited two such stores in Tokyo, one could see immediately that they were doing very large dollar sales, and of course were selling a great many Dennerle, and Dupla products, as well as quite a number of Japanese made items. In Japan, which was possibly after Germany Dennerle’s largest market, a former professional cycling champion, and world class photographer, by the name of Takashi Amano watched carefully at the impact of Dennerle on the Japanese market. He also had an aquarium store in a small village near the town of Nigata on the North West coast of Japan. Amano decided that he could improve upon the offerings of both Dennerle and Dupla. Around 1994 he burst upon the Japanese scene, with a vengeance, having created not only a range of products which paralleled Dennerle/Dupla etc, but also came with a couple of very important innovations of his own which made the aquariums even more beautiful. He was able to promote his products, with tremendous success, Above all because of his ability as a photographer, which he utilized to promote his range of products with brochures, a magazine, books and more, to a degree and quality which competitors could not match.

Amano also brought to the hobby, an exceptional capability in terms of artistic landscaping of the plants. Neither Dennerle nor Dupla could compare to the aesthetic beauty of his creations, nor his publications, three of which were later published in the USA in the series of books by T.F.H. under the titles of Nature’s Aquarium World..

Possibly one of the most dramatic innovations of Amano, was his discovery that the ?oating plant Riccia ?uitans, could be made with applied technology, to become an submersed plant covering rocks etc, and creating a lawn effect which was outstanding in it’s beautiful appearance. Other plants which Amano also perfected the use of were Glossostigma elatinoides, Micranthemum mi- cranthemum as well as several others. Of course Amano being Japanese could bring products and promotional material to the dealers and hobbyists, in Japanese that easily surpassed the efforts of Dennerle or Dupla. Within a short period of time, some 4000 stores in Japan were dealers in Ama- no’s products, and Dennerle’s market was considerably impacted, in Japan and some other Asian markets.

Amano also with his wonderful artistic ability coupled with his outstanding capability as a photogra- pher, brought creativity in Landscaping to the hobby, which no other company to date has managed to equal. These photographs, as shown in his various books and magazines, without any doubt stimulated a new wave of enthusiasm for Landscaped Aquariums, as they brought the art to a new niveau. Amano’s success was naturally assisted by the Japanese attraction to small plants such as Bonsai. The Japanese artistry as a people made this new offering an obvious attraction, especially as Amano mar- keted properly in a professional manner and added a special approach which is the embodiment of his company.

However Amano’s efforts to expand his base to Europe and the USA, were not so successful. Firstly the products were excessively expensive, due in some part to the high cost of the Japanese Yen, but also because few if any of his products are actually made by his company, but made for him to Amano’s designs. Furthermore in Europe, Amano made the same error that Dupla had made in earlier years in other markets. He selected as an agent for all of Europe, a person who had a history of not following through, and this coupled with the very high cost of his products, has made Amano, a marginal player in the European theater.

In the USA, a similar story took place, when Amano gave his agency to a person in Florida, who al- though very enthusiastic about the products and the future of planted aquariums, failed for a variety of reasons to make any serious headway into the US market. That same company was folded in 1999, after only two years of operation.

Amano however has become known to the American public, by the large coverage given to his com- pany and design of Landscaped Aquariums, by the genius of Dr. Herbert Axelrod, who arranged to publish a series of books by TFH under the title of Nature’s Aquarium World. This short history of the planted aquarium, sets the stage, for what I sincerely believe is about to become an important part of the aquarium hobby in the USA, and hopefully in some part at least, to do away with the use of plastic plants. In this book we illustrate some of the products that can be used to create and maintain a beautiful Aquarium Landscape. Many though not all, of the products are one’s that we have developed over the years in the growing of our plants, and which worked best for us. There are many other good products out there, and a few that are not so good. We hope the reader will understand this. We invite you to read on.

more on aquatic plants here

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Custom Home Builders Vaincrease Energy Efficiency Of My Home

Custom Home Builders VA:What can I do to increase the energy efficiency of my current home?

by: www.CustomHomeBuildersVA.com

Most advisers agree that energy prices are going to continue to go up. If you look at the possibility of further devaluation of the dollar combined with the possibility of draconian energy legislation, the opportunity of extraordinary escalation of energy prices exists.

Many Americans are living in homes larger than they need. Homes that were built for size rather than quality.

In my opinion, getting prepared for high energy costs is a critical component of any preparedness strategy.

First do all the conventional things to make your home as energy efficient as possible.

Add insulation, upgrade windows and doors (while you are doing this it is an excellent opportunity to upgrade your security), change light bulbs, upgrade appliances, install water heater blankets. If the plumbing pipes have relatively short runs it is very likely that a propane fired tank-less water heater would make sense.

Secondly, consider your heating system. This is an intensive area of energy for many homes.

We recommend wood-fired outdoor boilers where feasible. These units circulate hot water and can be used for many heating applications including home heat, domestic hot water, greenhouse radiant heat and swimming pools, to name a few.

If you have a heat pump, a propane furnace installed with the heat pump is a very good combination. This allows for an energy efficient propane furnace to do the heating when the heat pump is out of its operating range. While there are very efficient and comfortable heat pumps, the back-up heating strips on heat pumps are very energy intensive. Propane is still primarily produced in the United States.

Also, we have had very good experiences with geo-thermal. While it is still electric based, it provides an excellent source of heating in mild climates and is incredibly energy efficient.

We always recommend some alternate options in heating, so there is some source of heat in the event of grid failures. For example, if you have a geo-thermal heating system, install a wood stove as the back-up.
There are a number of structural changes or modifications which could result in much greater energy efficiency. These would include adding a vestibule or windbreak if you have children or go in and out of the house a good bit. You might be able to earth berm part of the north side of your house, or add a solar room to the south side of the home, just to name a few possibilities.

Bipartisan Energy Efficiency Bill On Verge Of Senate Breakthrough

While many in Washington still warn about the dangers of carbon emissions and climate change, the reality and perhaps the one thing that experts on both sides agree on, is that Americans are paying less attention to global warming than they have in the past. To end this uncertainty, the Senate after months of behind the scenes maneuvering will begin the debate on the critically important legislation which could help American consumers, businesses and the federal government to save millions of dollars each year by using less energy, and using less energy will be a step forward in the fight against climate change in the U.S.
The new energy efficiency legislation introduced by Senators Shaheen and Portman could come up before the U.S. Senate for approval. The Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act, also known as Shaheen-Portman Bill will help to reduce the energy bill of U.S., improve its economic competitiveness, create new American jobs and enhance U.S. energy security. The bill has been endorsed by more than 200 businesses, trade associations and advocacy groups.
What is the Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act?
The Shaheen-Portman Energy Efficiency Bill passed the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee by a 19-3 vote, it includes provisions that will directly improve energy efficiency in buildings, industrial processes and federal agencies, the provisions in the bill include strengthening energy efficiency requirements in building energy codes, incentivizing energy efficiency using rebates and for certain equipment, encouraging energy efficiency supply chains through a new supply star program.
The American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) found implementation of the bill would save about 9.5 quadrillion btus (british thermal units) between 2014 and 2030, or nearly one tenth of the annual energy use in the U.S. As the second largest consumer of energy in the world and the worlds biggest economy it is critically important for the United States to improve energy efficiency, the bill has received bipartisan support with seven Republicans and twelve Democrats in favor of the bill. It contains a variety of policies and programs to reduce residential, commercial and industrial energy use and focusing on sectors and areas with energy savings potential such as the residential, commercial and industrial sectors, the bill also restricts inefficient energy practices that will cost the U.S. economy billions of dollars and millions of jobs every year. One of the components of the bill also requires the Federal Government- which is the largest user of energy adopt energy saving techniques and best practices to operate efficiently.
Commenting on the bill Senator Portman said Washington can seem pretty divided these days, but there are some things on which we all can agree. This bill is one of them it is good for the economy and good for the environment. By making it easier for employers to use energy efficient tools, we are helping them to reduce their costs, enabling them to put those savings towards expanding their companies and hiring new workers.
The bill has received positive feedback and widespread support, the only constraint halting the success of the bill are the amendments lawmakers are trying to attach to it. The successful passing of this bill will not only help in mitigating climate change in the U.S. and reduce carbon emissions but also be a trendsetter for other countries to follow suit.


Decorating Your Bathroom After Remodeling Can Be Fun And Exciting

When the bathroom remodeling has been completed the next thing you have to do is decorating your bath area to make it more exciting and fun to use your bath. Any shortfall in thelevel of look you wanted to give to your bathroom through remodeling can be achieved and through proper decoration. So take the decoration of your bathroom as a necessary part of your remodeling and plan things accordingly. When you have undertaken your bath remodeling as a part of your home renovation then you have to select the materials for decoration so as to follow the general style that you have used in the other parts of your home.

As soon as the major features of the remodeling have been completed you can start the decoration, as you will be anxious to see the new look of your bathroom by completing all things as planned by you. So go for the cleaning the bathroom before decoration and start the work with the painting or you can go for setting wallpapers on the wall. To be different you can even use a combination of both for getting the desired look. Getting good curtains with a matching motif or picture will add to the look of your bathroom. designs. There are endless varieties of screens and curtains that are made in plastic and fiber especially made for use in bath areas. Get a good towel box and find a suitable place for it. The bathmat must be such that it is not slippery and you can add a matching screen for your shower and keep a matching waste basket.

When you have done all these your bathroom will have the look you always wanted.

Melissa Roy writes article on Amerock hardware products at Brass cabinet hardware and Hickory Steel Pulls.

Three Important Advantages Of Proactive Service Assurance

Service providers and businesses tend to be under increased strain to meet and even go above network and application performance goals and level-of-service guarantees with regard to converged IT services and communications technologies. It is extremely important that these organizations take a hands-on technique for service assurance to keep up with the needs of today’s fast-changing landscape. By doing this, as well as furnishing themselves with the appropriate end-to-end service assurance system, service providers and enterprises will be in a greater position to assess the overall health of their networks, ensure the efficient delivery of services and applications, and also experience a great many other benefits to work through a high-level client experience.

Enhanced Performance Visibility
Decision makers across service providers and enterprise businesses often need to search through substantial amounts of network performance and application performance management information, and run the risk of customers spotting service deterioration and troubleshooting costs growing as a result. However, if combined with Web 2.0 tactics which simplify the visualization related performance details and offer access to real-time, personalized information, service assurance can be a snap. Decision makers are alternatively empowered to proactively find, isolate and remedy performance issues before they arise and focus on offering the best possible client experience.

More Efficient Planning and Execution
Having the capacity to anticipate and properly accommodate for client influenced network and service utilization and development free of service interruption is critical, especially for enterprises and service providers trying to get the most out of their established infrastructures. Proactive service assurance tools can make it possible for organizations to More effectively grasp their long term needs, make the most cost-effective and operationally efficient decisions, as well as plan and deliver communications technologies and converged IT services. Investigating past performance information and predicting where infrastructure upgrades or network expansions are required will assist to guarantee a high level of service and, subsequently, gratify end users.

Proof of Service Level Agreement Compliance
Users have very little loyalty or patience when network and application performance are negatively impacted. By proactively tracking and studying performance information and supplying real-time, detailed records that allow clients to ascertain if they’re getting the appropriate level of service, service providers in particular will be able to lower service level agreement infractions, guarantee a high level of service and enhance the clients’ perception of their service. Along with the ideal platform, this particular sensible service assurance will also help organizations improve capacity planning, centralize and automate the process of reporting, and quickly determine exactly where problems are happening and ways to trobleshoot and fix them.

There isn’t any doubt there presently exists lots of advantages to taking a proactive strategy to service assurance. Service providers and enterprises can not only gain a new level of visibility and control over network and application performance, but also enhance the quality and dependability of service level distribution and further enhance user gratification. With the perfect end-to-end service assurance platform, businesses will be able to rise above the obstacles of the modern day fast-paced communications landscape and become greater situated to realize cost and operational efficiencies and also be ahead of the competition.

How to buy contemporary bedroom furniture at the bargain price

This article focuses on different type of furniture and its role in your home decor. You interiors reflect your taste and rejuvenate your spirits. It is therefore recommended that you select your furniture with care and purchase it from a reliable furniture store.

Furniture is the essence and soul of any home. Not only does the furniture make a home a livable place, it also adds to its beauty and aesthetics. You can also increase the usability of your home by adding the right kind of modern Italian furniture. Some of the contemporary furniture stores offer exciting furniture, which is very appealing and makes a lasting impression upon the visitor. It also reflects your creativity, design skills and taste.

Your creativity and innovation are very important while furnishing your dream home. You can also create a theme by mixing and matching different sets of furniture to give it a soulful look. Your creative streaks and adventurous approach will determine the ultimate outcome. You can use contemporary coffee tables with innovative sofas and wall hangings to give you interiors very pleasant look. For some people, home furnishing comes as an interesting pastime and they take it as their hobby.

Choosing Modern Furniture

When it comes to shop contemporary furniture, you should do some window shopping first to find out the suitable furniture according to your existing dcor. When it comes to modern furniture, you will find a wide array of designs and styles according to different themes and set ups. Different types of wood are used to make contemporary bedroom furniture, such as teak wood, mahogany, timbre, plywood, Oak, Maple, Cherry, walnut and pine.Different colors and designs can be used to make it amazingly beautiful.In case there is no theme yet as far as your home furniture is concerned, you should establish one.

Modern furniture is quite expensive; therefore you should not be in a hurry to shop contemporary office furniture or any kind of furniture for your drawing room. It is difficult to find excellent furniture at reasonable prices. Therefore, you should compare the prices at various stores before zeroing in on any purchase. There are many local online furniture stores that provide quarterly furniture at reasonable rates. You can also get amazing discounts sometimes. It is also very easy to Google-search some local modern furniture stores and compare the prices without visiting the stores physically. This is the best way to get bargains.

Home Dcor Ideas and styles

it is quite enjoyable activity to decorate your drawing room, bedroom and offices spaces. Modern furniture can make your bedroom a much comfortable and cozy place to live in. It is the place where you spend your quality time; therefore it is essential that you pay attention to the details of your bedroom dcor. It not only reflects your taste, it shows how organized and creative you are. So, always go for well designed furniture for you interiors. For more details, and to find out new arrivals, you can visit the website of your preferred furniture store.

Furnish On Demand, Online Modern Italian furniture store NYC, USA offers high quality furniture for home and office. Call 631-505-3711 for Contemporary living room, Bedroom and dining room furniture.For more information Please Visit us at:http://www.furnishondemand.com


Techniques On How To Create A Podium

Studying how to assemble a podium is among the least difficult carpentry related labor I’ve ever done. Most likely since it isn’t as detailed as some furnishings I’ve made in the past.

Podiums frequently called as pulpits or lecterns are necessary fixtures on a stage. There are variety of design that you can use for a podium in particular on its front area. Most usually the style is largely dependent on the purpose of which it is built for.

Construct a Podium the Easy Way

As I’ve mentioned earlier, building a lectern isn’t as hard as some other woodworking projects that is, if you have basic construction in mind. However, the good thing is that even if you are just able to build a basic structure, you always have the option of customizing it later on and adding some designs and embellishments once you have the basic construction done.

Making a Lectern – Issues to Keep in Mind

When I constructed a lectern for a function room late in the previous year, I’ve had several things to bear in mind to make sure the structure is precisely suited for the purpose it was created for.

Several of these are:

Height and Width

How high and wide would you like the lectern to be? In my case, I just have the average height of men in mind when making a podium as most speakers in that function room are men.

This is something that is entirely dependent on the height of the common user of the podium.

Standard Podium vs. Multi-purpose, Multi-compartment Lecterns

You have the decision of creating a fundamental design which is commonly very easy to create. You’ll just be in need of a 3 sided casing with measurements of your choice keeping the widest side for the front side of the podium you are making.

A multi-purpose podium however, would require to have some compartments installed to make some space for the materials that the speaker might be using. When I was making the structure I’ve added a sort of built-in cabinet in the podium as requested by the owner for storage purposes. Microphones and some equipment needed for the sound system is stored there.

Mobile Podium vs. Fixed Lectern

To construct a podium, specifically a movable one, you only need to attach an industrial strength wheels on the foundation of the structure. Just make sure they are locking wheels to make certain unwelcome motions when using the pulpit.

Furthermore, you may want to use lightweight materials for portability.

If you opt for a more fixed podium, you can just add more weight to its base to allow still for minor movements. However, you may also attach the podium to the floor for a more permanent fixture.

Plans for Making a Podium

To make a podium, a pulpit building plan will make the operation less complicated. With this, you would have the basic construction design all ready for you.

Of course the podium layout would have to be based wholly on the goal it is constructed for.

Personally, I made use of a very handy blueprint in constructing a podium. I’ve been making use of this source not just in building a podium but in my other woodworking projects as well.

Ventilation System Sizing

HVAC design engineers face many choices throughout the planning process, perhaps few as crucial as that of fan equipment, a principal consumer of energy. This article will discuss options for improving energy efficiency when designing an HVAC system and selecting a fan.

Fan power consumption is directly proportional to system flow rate and static pressure. For theoretically perfect efficiency, the minimum power required to move air against resistance is defined as:

AHP = (Q P) 6,356

AHP = air horsepower
Q = volumetric flow rate (cubic feet per minute)
P = pressure (inches of water gauge) or resistance

Flow rates are predetermined based on space type and occupancy. Although local codes determine minimum requirements for HVAC systems, ASHRAE Handbook–HVAC Applications1 provides general design criteria for various commercial and public buildings. These criteria include air movement, room circulation, noise, and filter efficiency. Although all are important, room circulation, in air changes per hour, typically determines airflow requirements. Because flow rate is driven by design criteria, a design engineer’s primary means of reducing energy use is to minimize the static pressure needed to move air through a system.

Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) International defines system pressure loss as “the sum of the static-pressure losses due to friction, shock, dissipation of velocity pressure at the system discharge, and the static-pressure differences between the entry and discharge openings of an air system. The static pressure a fan must overcome is dependent on many variables, only some of which the design engineer can control. The location of equipment often is determined by the architect and, therefore, limits the engineer’s options.

Duct configuration and fittings used to connect components are large contributors to static pressure. Other sources of system pressure loss are balancing and control dampers, variable-air-volume (VAV) boxes, diffusers, louvers, coils, filters, and other components in an air stream. Given that velocity pressure is proportional to the square of velocity, pressure loss in most of these components is proportional to velocity squared. This makes size an important factor, as cross-sectional area dictates fluid velocity. For example, reducing air velocity throughout a system by 10 percent would result in a 20-percent reduction in system static pressure. With air power proportional to pressure, this would equate to a 20-percent reduction in energy consumption.

In addition to accounting for all static-pressure loss in a system and achieving required room airflow, a design engineer must adhere to Section 6.5.3 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, which limits the power (horsepower) a fan can consume per cubic foot per minute of airflow the fan generates. With flow requirements defined, a design engineer must limit system static pressure to meet this power limitation.

A major contributor to energy consumption that often is ignored is system effect. AMCA International defines system effect as “a decrease in fan performance capability, observed as a pressure loss, which results from the effect of fan-inlet restrictions/obstructions, fan-outlet restrictions, or other conditions influencing the performance of the fan when it is installed in a system.”2 System effect is a reduction in a fan’s ability to generate pressure and can be looked at as an additional system pressure loss. It can lead to underperformance, excessive noise, and vibration in a fan and system.

System effect can be described by its impact on a fan curve. Fan curves are produced from laboratory testing, with fans configured for ideal installations. Testing is performed in accordance with ANSI/AMCA Standard 210-07/ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 51-2007, Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Certified Aerodynamic Performance Rating. A fan curve displays performance for a constant speed (revolutions per minute) in terms of static pressure vs. volumetric flow rate. In Figure 1, the intersection of the system-resistance curve and the pressure curve is the operating point of the fan. To move along the system curve to alter fan performance, one must increase or decrease fan speed accordingly. Operating power is where the power curve intersects with a vertical line running through the operating point.

The ideal inlet and outlet conditions under which fans are tested rarely are seen in the field. As a result, a fan will overperform or underperform in terms of flow rate, static pressure, or both. In Figure 2, a suitable fan was selected, but system effect was ignored. The blue lines represent how the fan would perform under AMCA International test conditions. Actual measured performance is indicated by the red dot. The red line shows how the fan would perform in an AMCA International air test when operating at design speed, but takes into account system effect. The only way to achieve the desired performance is to speed the fan to the rate designated by the green line. The consequence is a higher operating speed, higher brake horsepower, and higher sound levels.

Another key to reducing power consumption is fan selection. Generally, propeller or tube-axial fans are more efficient for relatively low static pressures, while centrifugal-type fans are used for relatively high static pressures. Too often, fan selection is based solely on first cost. The consequence is that a relatively small-diameter, high-speed fan is used. A small fan operating at a high speed generally requires more operating power and produces more noise than a large fan operating at a low speed.

Most of the energy lost in a system is converted to heat. For example, mechanical and electrical energy losses in a fan motor raise the surface temperature of the motor. If the motor is in an air stream, the heat will be transferred directly to the air.

In a belt-driven system, losses are the result of belt friction, slippage, and / or flexing. All such losses are converted to heat and, if the belt drive is in an air stream, increase the teperature of air. Fan losses quantified by fan efficiency contribute to air-temperature rise as well. As a fan works on a fluid, the friction attributed to the airflow decreases the fan’s efficiency and creates heat. As the efficiency of a system decreases, air-temperature rise increases. In a cooling application, this means increased energy consumption on the part of the compressor. Minimizing inefficiencies results in energy savings. It is the engineer’s responsibility to minimize total system pressure through proper design and layout. This involves balancing economics and efficiencies in specifying a fan. But not all responsibility resides with the engineer. The contractor must ensure appropriate equipment is installed and not base decisions solely on the lowest bid. The contractor needs to be aware of the consequences of poor installation and minimize system effects.

The losses accrued in a system directly affect the system’s power consumption while indirectly increasing the energy consumed by other processes. Energy losses in the form of heat equate to higher operating costs.

Because performance conditions are mandated by codes, proper system design, equipment selection, and installation are the most effective means of minimizing inefficiencies and saving energy.

The Benefits of Using Stoneware Dishes and Dinner Sets

Stoneware dishes and dinner sets are just as popular and valued by today’s cooks as they have been for centuries gone by. Stoneware is a safe material for cooking food and it is also one of the most admirable kinds of material that has been used throughout centuries as a cooking vessel. The artful designs found on stoneware have always been very appealing to many people. And things are no different now. Stoneware has made a big comeback recently due to its multiple uses in today’s kitchens. Some cooks prefer to buy their stoneware dishes individually while other choose complete dinner sets but they all buy for the benefit of the wonderful material.

Stoneware dishes and dinner sets are durable and this increases their value in the kitchen even more. These cooking and serving vessels are actually made from clay that has been treated at very high temperatures. They keep the food warm for a long time because the material has an inherent ability to store heat.

They are even more resilient than dishes made from china or porcelain. The heavy coating of glaze applied to the clay base makes these dishes so much more resistant to cracking or chipping.

Stoneware dishes and dinner sets are dishwasher safe and are very easy to maintain and clean up. And to make it even better, you can use stoneware dishes in the microwave! That is one benefit that makes the sale for so many families today.

You can safely keep it in the oven or even freeze it if you would like to store something in it. But one caution when freezing in stoneware – care should be taken when taking the vessel out of the freezer. If there is too much of a sudden temperature change the dishes are likely to break. To get around this, just be sure to allow some thawing time on the counter or overnight in the refrigerator before heating in your microwave or oven.

Interior Design – Information & Recommendations

If you are going to begin on your very first interior design challenge within your house, probabilities are you’ll wonder how critical it genuinely is to know the modern trends in interior design. You want to make sure that whatever decorating scheme you pick will improve the resale cost of one’s property.

Quite a few designers will say interior planning really should reflect you and your individuality, not necessarily the trendy and fashionable. Even so, if you are the type of individual who’s first in line to shop for the newest electronic gadgetry in a continual quest to be as much as date, the newest trends in interior design are genuinely appropriate.

It could be difficult to preserve with all of the most up-to-date style basically because they’ve a way of altering rapidly, typically from year to year.

Designers also inform us that sorting via modern day decorating fads and assessing them with classic designs helps us to establish what we like.

Assume you take a moment and explain (blank) the way in which you would like to make use of the residence along with your lounge room. You permit it a lot of thought and produce a massive checklist, the final item being: it has to be straightforward to maintain clean. As an operating principle, that might be a little of a stretch; but it is essential that you just you, so it’s proper.

For your lounge room among the most recent trends could be the usage of natural stone appear wall panels. These are particularly dramatic, giving a 3D impact by their very own varying use of stone-look raised styles. The grooves and nooks and crannies supply depth and texture for the stunningly dramatic impact.

Now it’s towards the kitchen location, exactly where organic stone countertops carry on growing in reputation. Nonetheless, the shiny glazed finishes of granite tops are getting to be much less fashionable as well as probably the most current fashion could be the granite finish.

This finish is produced by incredibly rapidly device buffing which yields a minimal luster finish that resembles stone inside the organic environment. The stone have to be thoroughly sealed using the high priced sealer and repeated frequently. Even when covered appropriately, the countertop could possibly be much more challenging to clean compared to less fashionable polished marble leading. The very refined glow resists adhesion of food particles to the surface, that the lower luster finish doesn’t. Lastly, if the seal fails, the countertop can spot.

Some interior designers advise trend lovers to play it secure using the pricey decorating items – like the countertop – and opt for the newest trends inside your selection of room accessories.