Led Energy-saving Lamps Light Of Domestic Production In Foreign Countries

Energy-saving lamp life is 2,500-5,000 hours, while semiconductor LED lighting lamps life is 50,000 ~8 hours under normal conditions, but only incandescent bulbs, neon lights LED lamp power consumption one-tenth. Therefore, if all of our lighting using LED lights, then a year electricity savings equivalent to built 6 of three gorges power station.

Departments concerned should adopt mandatory measures to promote energy-efficient products, strengthen the scientific propaganda green consumption and energy conservation, and Government ease means, from various aspects such as financial, tax, product development, supporting the development and use of energy-efficient products, energy-saving products prices come down and persuade them to go to the ordinary people.

Energy monitor Corps Chief of integrated technology of Zhejiang Province, senior engineer Wang Yunpeng told reporters recently, currently Zhejiang province’s environmental protection and energy saving type (LED) lamp production company has more than 1000 enterprises. Despite the many production enterprises, product energy efficiency of alarming, but “production of LED lights are basically sold abroad”.

Semiconductor LED lighting has become recognized worldwide as an important way of energy saving and environmental protection. Because factors such as the lack of electricity in the country, calling for time to save energy by using energy-efficient lighting products, as the world’s biggest energy-saving lamp production in Zhejiang Province, over more than 1000 LED lamp production companies produce at home rarely, and Zhejiang produces LED lights can only be sold abroad. In fact not only LED lights, about 50% per cent of the global production of energy saving lamps in Zhejiang, Zhejiang 95% for export production of energy saving lamps, energy saving lamps, the utilization rate of less than 20% of the local population.

Represented by the LED lamps why energy-efficient products not being faced by people in Taiwan are optimistic about wall wall fragrant flowering embarrassed? Reason for this restriction.

First is the high price of energy-efficient products. Current incandescent bulb per 1 to 2 Yuan, while the cheapest energy-saving lamps in the market in more than 10, currently a 250 Watt high pressure sodium light source section 220 Yuan, but a corresponding LED Street lamp light parts 1700 Yuan is required. It is this high price, to discourage domestic consumers for energy-efficient products.

Followed by consumer understanding of the idea of bias. Current domestic consumption, mainly focused on price and product quality, and for energy efficiency and “personal savings accounts”, “national energy account” with little concern, with the result that ordinary consumers continue to choose target consumer on the standard price of stay on the surface, resulting in energy-saving products best game no one played.

Third, lack of policy guidance. Although we have repeatedly emphasized that save energy, the construction of economical society, but only stays on the slogans and policy advocacy. In addition, because the specific standards for energy-saving products and found that qualifications such as vulnerability management there is a, which makes a number of products under the name seems energy-saving market.

Energy saving will eventually depend on energy-saving products to achieve, to achieve the purpose of the construction of economical society to achieve energy savings, we have “LED” learn embarrassing realities facing, to take measures to promote energy-saving products.

First is take forced measures promotion energy-saving products, eliminated those production technology behind, and energy wasted serious of traditional products; second is take Government stabilizing means, from funds, and tax, and products development, all aspects, on energy-saving products of development and using introduced subsidies and grants, enabling measures, to energy-saving products price drop down, led its go near unusual people; its three is strengthened green consumption and savings energy of science publicity efforts, boot people science even, consciously practice line green consumption, and Save energy-saving society construction claims its four is to regulate energy market management, crack down on fake and shoddy products are shoddy to discredit energy-saving products reputation.

If we do, it is estimated that “LED” energy-saving lamps as the representative of the energy-saving products are sure to come out of the wall within the fragrant flowering wall of embarrassment, become green consumer behavior of domestic consumer market trends, so as to practice energy conservation and green consumption, positive contribution to the construction of economical society.

How to Navigate the EPC Register Website

The Domestic Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) Register is the register of Energy Performance Certificates lodged for properties in the UK, and can be accessed online via the epcregister.com website. The website is operated on behalf of the British Government by the Landmark Information Group, which has designed the site to be easy to navigate so you can quickly find the information you are looking for.

The home page includes a menu on the left, with a description on the right and clickable links for quick access to finding a reputable domestic energy assessor in your area, and to retrieving an energy performance certificate for a property. These options are also available by selecting the appropriate option from the menu on the left.

Find Energy Assessor

The first option after Home on the menu is Find Energy Assessor. This page helps you find an accredited energy assessor near the property to be assessed, or to check whether or not an individual claiming to be an energy assessor is accredited. To find an assessor you will need to select what type of report you require the energy assessor to prepare and the postcode of the property. Full contact details of accredited assessors are only available if they have given permission for these details to be displayed.

If you select the option to find the nearest accredited assessor in the area in which the property is located, select the type of report you want them to prepare. Options are: an Energy Performance Certificate (used for existing buildings), an SAP (Standard Assessment Procedure) Energy Performance Certificate (used for new or converted buildings), or a Home Condition Report.

Retrieve Report

There are two options on the menu for retrieving an existing report: Using a Reference Number, or Using a Property Address. Use the first option if you know the RRN (Report Reference Number), which is shown on front page of the EPC. Use the second option if you do not know the RRN but do know the postcode.

In both cases you will need to enter a security code to confirm you are a genuine enquirer and not a spammer, and you will also need to read and accept the terms.

If you do not know the postcode, click on the link to the right instead of entering the postcode. You will then be asked to enter the street name and postal address town. The postcode is then displayed and you can click on it to view the list of available reports.

EPC Adviser

This option enables you to see how you can make your property more energy efficient and less expensive to run. Select this option and enter the RRN and security code. Click Next and agree to the conditions. When you click Next again a list of measures (such as insulation, changes to lighting and heating measures) you can take to improve energy efficiency is displayed. Select the options you want and then click on Calculate to see how much money you could save. You can try as many different combinations as you wish. Click on View Results when you have finished to view a summary and download a pdf.

Investing In Derelict Property

The property development market in the UK provides numerous alternatives for property investors. One of the most popular is buying a derelict property with the objective of renovating it and then selling it for profit. As long as you buy at the right price and effectively manage your development expenses, fixing up old and rundown properties will almost always make an excellent investment.

Why choose a derelict property?

A derelict property refers to one that has been abandoned for a long time and is in such a bad condition that it needs to be demolished. Derelict properties are usually in an uninhabited state and need to go through extensive repairs or have to be restored to a liveable (and therefore mortgage able) state. As of 2008, there are more than a million derelict properties in the UK.

Derelict properties are seen as good investments because they can be acquired cheaply, although they need to be renovated and developed first before they can be occupied. Regardless of their dilapidated conditions, most of these properties have walls and foundations that are still intact thus entailing the use of less cement and cheaper building expenses.

How to find a derelict property

While searching for a rundown property is generally considered difficult unless you spot one in passing, there are many creative ways of locating them. One is at auction where many properties put up for sale are often in need of restoration. Major auction houses typically offer a catalogue listing the properties scheduled for sale.

You can also find derelict properties through the registers made by different conservation groups such as the English Heritage, the governments legal advisory body on the historic environment. The association produces a register of different buildings at risk. Also, you can also look up websites that offer to help find such properties. Most of them provide details of empty homes in different locations. Estate agents as always are worth talking to as well.

The value of a derelict property

To determine the value of a rundown property, you should have a complete building survey conducted by an experienced surveyor. Before you make the purchase, be sure to check planning possibilities carefully. If the property has a planning permission for change of use, it can command a higher price.

Financing a derelict property

Obtaining a mortgage to finance the renovation of a derelict property can be complicated but there are financial institutions that will lend on such properties. The Ecology Building Society and Norwich & Peterborough will lend on derelict properties through their green, self-build or renovation mortgages. Most of these lenders will release the funds in drip-feed method in stages so that if you default on your repayments and the property has to be sold, the lender can recover its money.

It is sometime possible to get a grant from your local council to help with renovation expenses but these are usually only available to landlords who plan to make the refurbished property available for housing association tenants. There are also councils that provide small grants to those with renovation plans or energy efficiency work.

Renovating old and rundown properties still remains a sound investment for many property investors. However experts advise that developers put a high priority on repairs done to an excellent standard using appropriate materials. This way the value of the property increases considerably.

Hotpoint Tvm562 Vented Tumble Dryer

Hotpoint have recently been voted the Most Trusted Domestic Appliance Brand in the UK for the 9th consecutive year through the Readers Digest Survey. What is it which makes Hotpoint such a popular brand? It is down to several factors included in their range of appliances, such as price, style, reliability, features and functionality. The Hotpoint TVM562 vented tumble dryer is a brilliant example of an appliance which is popular and contains brilliant features to help you when doing the laundry.

The Hotpoint Aquarius TVM562 tumble dryer is a really practical machine, if you are looking for an appliance which offers excellent cleaning quality teamed with everyday features and functions then this could be the tumble dryer for you. The Hotpoint TVM562 tumble dryer is C energy rated and has been recognised as being Energy Saving Recommended by the Energy Saving Trust. Everyone should be doing their bit to be greener starting in the kitchen with energy saving appliances can be a great way of starting to help to protect the environment.

The Hotpoint TVM562 vented tumble dryer has some brilliant features and functions, such as the reverse tumble action. This feature prevents clothing from tangling when drying which results in less creasing this also means less ironing for you which is a great bonus!

The Hotpoint TVM562 vented tumble dryer has an end of cycle alarm which alerts you when the dry load is ready to be emptied. It is all too easy to forget about a laundry load when its tucked away in the machine having a gentle reminder to empty the load is great for those who forget! Empting close to the end of a cycle will help to prevent additional creases.

Other features of the Hotpoint TVM562 vented tumble dryer include high and low heat settings, set and forget sensor drying, final cool tumble, easy iron, delay timer and safety start button. All of which contribute to a hassle free life when it comes to doing the laundry!

The Hotpoint TVM562 vented tumble dryer comes in a choice of either polar white or graphite, both of which are great colours to fit in with any kitchens design.

Vented tumble dryers will carry any moisture which is created when drying your clothing through an external venting hose which means that this type of appliance must be placed next to an outside wall so that the moisture can be vented successfully.

When buying a tumble dryer it is important to decide which features you will find useful, the Hotpoint TVM562 vented tumble dryer has everything you need to feel confident when drying every laundry load easy iron programmes are a favourite around the UK because lets face it, no one like spending time doing the ironing!

Lessons Learned From A Failed Energy Efficiency Project

INTRODUCTION
You would think that energy efficiency is relatively simple: perform an energy audit, install the retrofits and then reap the energy savings. Unfortunately, it doesn”t always work that way. We performed an energy assessment of several stores of a major retail chain in the San Francisco Bay Area and identified a handful of low-cost retro-commissioning measures that had very promising potential. We quantified the expected savings and costs and returned after the project was installed. We then measured the savings using various methods and found either minimal or negative savings. The problem we discovered was that on nearly every measure, the contractors had repaired the hardware, but through various means had ensured that energy savings would not occur. This paper provides an account of the failed project at one store and the steps we took to remedy it. Specifically, this paper stresses the importance of Measurement and Verification and Commissioning of the retrofits.

DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING
The store, located in San Francisco, belongs to a well-known national retailer, whose name we will not divulge. The store is an aggregate of 3 buildings which have been joined together to comprise almost 1,000,000 square feet, of which over half is selling floor. Stock rooms and offices comprise the remainder of the space. The different buildings range between 8 and 11 stories tall.

The three buildings comprising the store were built at different times from the 1920s to the 1980s. Originally the buildings had different air handling, chilled water and hot water systems. Over the years, through energy conservation and facility improvement measures, the chilled water systems have been merged into one system.

There were no operating boilers in the store. Steam is provided to the store by an external vendor. Hot water is supplied to multi-zone air handling units and perimeter reheats in some areas of the store via heat exchangers.
There is one common cooling plant which houses two 500 ton centrifugal chillers (2004) which run all year. Chilled water is supplied to the Air Handling Units (AHUs) via primary/secondary chilled water loops. During the hottest months, both chillers run at around 90% full load””this happens about 5 days/yr. During the cooler months, one chiller runs at about 40% full load. If you have been to San Francisco you probably know that even in summer a typical day only reaches about 60 degrees . A properly designed and operating building in San Francisco should not need mechanical cooling most of the year, instead relying upon outside air to meet its cooling needs. This was obviously not the case .

A utility bill analysis identified an out of control building. Figure 1 presents twelve months of average usage per day versus average outdoor temperature. Each point represents a billing period. The superimposed red line represents the statistically insignificant trend. The lack of clear trend indicates that the building is either haphazardly controlled or that energy use varies due to some other variable. We believe mostly the former. During warmer periods (which are not that warm) the store uses more energy, indicating a variable cooling load based upon weather conditions. (An ideal system that uses outside air whenever possible should show a horizontal trend in this 48 to 66 degree temperature range.)

There are over fifty AHUs: a mixture of single zone, multi-zone, and variable air volume units. Each of the three sections contains different types of AHUs.
Electricity Costs for the store were over $2.5M per year. With the economic collapse in the fall of 2008, smart retailers were looking to cut costs wherever possible. One line item that could be cut was utilities. Saving 10% or more could add at least $250,000 to the bottom line.

BACKGROUND OF THE UTILITY PROGRAM
There may be several reasons why California uses less than 50% per capita of the energy than the rest of the country, but one major reason is the aggressive effort of the California Public Utilities Commission to cut energy usage. Commercial ratepayers of the investor owned utilities pay a fee in their utility bills that funds energy efficiency programs. These funds are then channeled to the investor owned utilities to promote energy efficiency. These utilities have over one hundred targeted programs aimed at different vertical markets such as: wineries, retail, hospitals, supermarkets, etc. Often these programs will include free energy audits or retro-commissioning services in conjunction with generous incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In some cases, the utilities will pay for up to 100% of the cost for implementing the measures. The utilities administer some programs directly and outsource others. The outsourced programs are designed and administered by third party energy consultants.

Quantum Energy Services & Technologies, Inc. (QuEST), an energy consulting firm headquartered in Berkeley, administers a retail program for PG&E which covers the San Francisco Bay Area. This program offers retailers free retro-commissioning studies along with incentives to implement energy conservation measures found. The utilities give incentives to the building owners based upon the amount of energy saved. But in order for energy savings to be recognized by PG&E, these savings need to be measured and verified and then the savings calculations must pass a review by third party reviewers. Nobody gets paid if the work does not pass the third party review. The third party review process is necessary to prevent false claims of savings, or gaming of the system. The reviewers can be tough and require all assumptions to be documented and based upon published standards or guidelines. The drawback of third party review is that some measures are dropped as the Measurement and Verification (M&V) costs would be prohibitively expensive.

QuEST retained our company as a subcontractor to help out with the retail program. Our company performed Retro-Commissioning (RCx) services on 8 stores belonging to this unnamed retailer, and this paper is about one of the stores. However, the same story occurred at most of the stores. It wasn”t one failure, but many.

A NOTE ON THE LEVEL OF RCx RIGOR
RCx is different from energy auditing in that RCx typically involves a more detailed study of the building”s control systems and HVAC systems than energy audits. In addition, RCx typically focuses on repairing, recalibrating and reprogramming, rather than procuring new equipment. Simple paybacks for RCx projects typically are under 2 years. Examples of RCx measures are: repairing inoperable equipment, programming controls, demand control ventilation, and calibrating temperature sensors. Examples of energy audit measures (which are not considered RCx measures) are: installing energy efficient chillers, boilers or package units, converting single zone HVAC systems to variable air volume systems, and installing EMS systems. Energy audit measures often are more expensive and may have longer paybacks. On the other hand, true RCx studies are much more detailed, and thus much more expensive to conduct than energy audits. RCx studies usually involve data logging, functional testing of controls, operator training and post implementation commissioning which repeats much of the data logging and functional testing that was previously done. RCx is criticized by some as too heavy on the analysis, as it can require hundreds of hours of work just to perform the study, whereas energy audits consume much less labor.

In order to make the most efficient use of ratepayer dollars, in QuEST”s RCx program the amount of engineering time was scaled down to minimize the time spent on work that does not directly lead to energy savings. Rather than write commissioning plans, and 100-page Master List of Findings reports, the interim deliverable is instead an Excel workbook that describes the measure, states all assumptions and measured values, and calculates the savings. Equipment is data-logged or trended before and after the implementation of the measures. Calculations are made in Excel so they can be verified by third party reviewers. Written reports come later, but are less extensive than typical RCx reports.

ONSITE INVESTIGATION
Two engineers spent 3 days onsite examining the store”s mechanical systems, uncovering problems, and identifying RCx Measures. Our work to this point was nearly identical to an energy audit.
Once the RCx Measures were identified, the list of RCx Measures was given to the customer who then decided which of them should be pursued. The list also was approved by the third party reviewer.

MEASURES FOUND
We found the store could save about $300,000 in both RCx and Retrofit Measures, which, with incentives offered a simple payback of less than six months. That is 12% of their energy spend. The following measure types were identified and approved by all parties:

Retrofit Measures
1.Install Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) on Multi-Zone Air Handling Units (AHUs).
2.Installation of VSDs on secondary chilled water loops.
RCx Measures
1.Repair economizer control on some air handlers. Many outside air dampers were rusted in place. A two by six was used to prop one open.
2.Repair a small number of faulty VSDs, some of which were in bypass running at 100% fan speed.
3.Reconnect static pressure lines. Some VSDs were running at full speed because the lines running to the static pressure sensors in the ducting had been previously destroyed by contractors.
4.Repair/Replace stuck chilled water valves. These valves were cooling whether the AHUs called for cooling or not. As a result, sales floor temperatures ranged from 62 degrees to 70 degrees.
5.Connect some AHUs to the Energy Management System. These AHUs were running wild and had no control at all.

DATA LOGGING
Once the measures were selected by the customer, QuEST engineers placed data loggers to measure pre-implementation temperatures and power. Temperatures measured included Outside Air Temperature (OAT), Return Air Temperature (RAT), Mixed Air Temperature (MAT) and Supply Air Temperature (SAT). Fan Motor kW were also logged for those units on VSDs. Spot measurements were taken of Fan Motor kW for AHUs that were not on VSDs.

SAVINGS CALCULATION
Energy savings were estimated using bin data simulations. Like-type AHUs were combined. Special care was taken in calculating energy savings to ensure that savings were not double-counted. Each energy conservation measure was modeled assuming the prior measures were already implemented. We integrated the interval data that we collected into the bin data simulations. To do this, we created regressions of our variables (RAT, MAT, SAT, kW) versus OAT. These regressions were used to project RATs, MATs, SATs and kW for other outdoor air temperatures that were not included in our sample.

INSTALLATION
Once we had estimated savings using our bin simulation models and provided measure costs, the customer decided which measures to implement. They then hired contractors to implement the measures. VSDs were installed and repaired, economizer dampers repaired, AHUs connected to the EMS system, etc.

M&V PROVES NO SAVINGS
Once the implementation was completed, QuEST engineers returned to the site and again data logged the same temperatures and power as before. The resulting data, RATs, MATs, SATs and kWs, was again regressed against OAT. Using the regression, RATs, MATs, SATs, and kW values were again extrapolated and placed into the bin simulations.

The resulting calculations demonstrated the unthinkable. Not only were the energy conservation measures we had recommended not saving energy, the affected systems at the store were using more energy than before! Actually, this could be seen from just looking at the interval data. It was obvious that the economizers and variable speed drives were not working as intended. The “repaired” economizers were letting in less outside air than before, and the variable speed drives were still commanding the fans to run at a constant load, but at a higher speed than before.

QuEST alerted the customer that their investments were not saving energy. Facility personnel then investigated the problems, found them, and corrected them.

Even though the contractors had made the economizers operational (as opposed to frozen), the damper actuators were not calibrated correctly. When dampers needed to be fully open, they were not. When dampers needed to be at minimum position, they were not. The variable speed drives were also installed incorrectly. Some wiring and controls issues were resolved and the units started operating as expected. Once these issues were resolved, M&V was performed again. We repeated the data-logging and placed this information into our bin simulations, and again projected the annual savings.
There are many ways energy efficiency projects can go wrong.

“Faulty recommendations
“Poor implementation
“Untrained staff who compromise all the energy conservation measures undertaken

Faulty recommendations may arise from a lack of understanding of how systems operate or should operate. Years of experience, and a good understanding of physics and control theory is necessary to make sound recommendations.

Poor implementation has many causes, but often can be traced to the mindset that having the right equipment will make the difference. But as the lessons learned here illustrate, installing the right hardware is only half the solution. It needs to be integrated into the system and operate according to a logical and beneficial sequence of operations.

The last item is especially troublesome because it is so common. Even if the right hardware is installed and controls optimized, small changes to the sequence of operations made to “fix” local problems may have large consequences on overall system performance over time. Changing supply air temperatures at the air handler to resolve hot or cold complaints may upset the balance of the system and cause problems elsewhere. Professors at Texas A&M University have pointed out that in the absence of continuous monitoring, a building”s performance will fall to the level of the least-trained operator within two years.

HOW TO AVOID FAILED ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECTS
There are a couple of ways to avoid projects that fail to produce savings. After equipment is installed, it needs to be commissioned by a third party, not the contractor who implemented the ECMs. Commissioning can be expensive, but it is worth it. However, just because the equipment has been deemed operational by the commissioning agent, that doesn”t mean it is saving what was expected. Commissioning will tell you if the equipment is working as it should. To determine if you are actually saving what was expected, M&V needs to be done on the building. Although M&V can appear as a waste of money to some, it caught this disaster before it was too late.

Unfortunately, building owners often value engineer commissioning and M&V out of their projects and leave themselves open to big disappointments in their energy efficiency projects. M&V is like insurance””sure, it costs money up front, but the reassurance of knowing the project is done correctly should be worth far more than the initial outlay. What other product would you purchase without verifying that you actually received what you paid for? Why should energy efficiency be any different?

CONCLUSION
Unfortunately, energy efficiency isn”t as simple as we would wish. Energy consultants may deliver quality energy audits and RCx studies, but merely implementing sound energy efficiency recommendations does not guarantee energy savings. The weak link is often in the commissioning of the measures to ensure they are doing what they are intended to do.
To avoid underperforming on your energy efficiency measures, we suggest the following three strategies:

1. Commission what you implement with third-party commissioning experts. Commissioning agents are not interested in selling hardware. They are interested in making systems operate at peak performance. They understand physics and control theory and can identify and repair problems quickly.

2. Track your energy savings using M&V. Even using something as simple as utility bill tracking software can provide some insight into building performance. An increase in monthly energy usage when a decrease was expected would have triggered an investigation into the cause. Verifying performance at the system level (as we did), while more difficult and expensive, would have isolated the problem much more quickly and accurately.

3. Provide proper training so that your facility staff doesn”t override or bypass your energy efficiency projects. Although we barely treated this topic in this paper, this is probably the single most effective step you can take. Your staff is the brains behind building operation, despite what EMS vendors may say. Having the smartest control system will do no good if it is operated by the dumbest operators.

Ergonomic Science Of Work Physiology & Work Demands

Work physiology is the science that studies how the human body responds to the physical stress of work or activity demands. These physiological responses are important in maintaining homeostasis in the body during work activities and reducing the adverse effects of physiological fatigue due to work. Homeostasis is defined as the maintenance of a constant or changing environment. In practical terms, it refers to the relatively constant internal environment of the human body during both stressed and relaxed conditions, due to many regulating anatomical and physiological systems. These organ systems and physiological responses regulate cellular metabolism, energy production, cellular waste product removal, voluntary muscle control, and the flow of blood and oxygen to working muscles. An understanding of the role of major organ systems in the human body during work activities and the relationships between work intensity and recovery intervals is essential to the science of ergonomics.

Metabolism
To accomplish work, the body requires energy, oxygen and nutrients. The human body consumes and uses carbohydrate, fat and protein nutrients to provide the required energy to maintain homeostasis both at rest and during work activity. During work, the primary nutrients utilized are fats and carbohydrates, with proteins contributing less than 5-15% of the total energy used. These nutrients, after having been converted to chemicals, enter the blood stream and circulate to the various internal organs and muscles. At the muscle sites, this chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy, or a muscle contraction, and heat. This process is known as metabolism.

Working muscle requires a constant supply of energy. The fundamental source of energy for these contractions is the high-energy Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) molecule. The ATP molecule is the most important energy carrying molecule in the muscle cell. The ATP compound consists of three parts: adenosine molecule, a ribose molecule and three phosphate molecules linked together by chemical bonds. The bonds linking the phosphate molecules are high-energy bonds and when these bonds are broken, large amounts of energy are released. This energy is then used for muscle contractions. The energy can be liberated from the ATP molecule by a process known as phosphorylation. This metabolic process is shown below. Phosphorylation is the process in which the Adenosine Triphosphate molecule is broken down by the enzyme ATPase into Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP), a phosphate molecule (Pi) and energy.
Aerobic Metabolism
The Adenosine Triphosphate needed for muscle work can be produced from either aerobic (with oxygen) metabolism or from anaerobic (without oxygen) metabolism. The aerobic metabolism of nutrients refers to the oxidation of glucose or glycogen molecules and fatty acids to form ATP, this process is called aerobic glycolysis. This metabolic pathway requires a continuous supply of blood in order to provide ongoing oxygen and nutrients.

A cardiovascular response to increased workload is to increase the amount of blood flowing to active muscle. However, it can take almost one minute for this response to be activated. Therefore, at the onset of most industrial tasks, or in cases of quick-high intensity tasks, it is not always possible to have adequate blood flow available to working muscles. When this occurs, the muscles switch to anaerobic metabolism.

Anaerobic Metabolism
The muscle cells can produce Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) or energy, without oxygen (anaerobic metabolism) by two methods: the first method is to break high-energy phosphate bonds in Creatine Phosphate (CP) molecules. The second method is by a process known as anaerobic glycolysis. Under anaerobic conditions, the simplest and thus immediate source of energy is through the use or production of the Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) molecule by breaking high-energy phosphate bonds in the Creatine Phosphate (CP) molecule. The CP molecule donates a phosphate(P) to an ADP molecule to create an ATP molecule and energy. Creatine Kinase is the enzyme that initiates this reaction in the muscle

The second anaerobic metabolic process for energy synthesis is called anaerobic glycolysis. This process also generates a limited amount of energy, but does so by breaking the chemical bonds in the breakdown of glucose to lactic acid. Anaerobic glycolysis can only produce enough ATP or usable energy for a few minutes. In this method, however, the supply of CP is quickly depleted in under 1 minute. Anaerobic glycolysis provides energy for up to four minute. Only the aerobic glycolysis process can provide a sustained supply of energy to working muscles. With both anaerobic processes, work can only be sustained for short periods because is a limited supply of available ATP and CP molecules in the muscle cells

Muscle Fatigue
When skeletal muscle is continually stimulated, the force or tension that is developed by the muscle fibers diminishes. This failure of muscle fiber to maintain tension as a result of contractile activity is known as muscle fatigue. The onset of fatigue depends on both the type of skeletal muscle fibers as well as the intensity and duration of the muscle contractions. The red muscle fibers, or the -slow twitch- fibers appear to have better blood flow and therefore oxygen supply to maintain aerobic metabolism. In the slow twitch muscle fibers, fatigue develops more slowly. These muscles fibers are used mostly during long duration, low intensity activities. The white muscle fibers, also called -fast twitch- fibers, appear to rely more upon anaerobic metabolism. These fibers fatigue more rapidly, and are used more for short duration, high intensity activities. The development of muscle fatigue corresponds to four events that occur in working muscles:

1.)The depletion of the concentration of ATP. The rate of ATP utilization exceeds the rate of production. The muscle cannot contract without ATP.
2.)Increased amounts of intracellular acidity due to the rise in lactic acid levels. This increased hydrogen ion concentration affects the contractile proteins of the muscle fibers, decreasing the force generated by the muscle fibers.
3.)The depletion of muscle glycogen levels. As the amount of available glycogen diminishes, the muscle can no longer sustain a contraction.
4.)Levels of other metabolic waste products, including Carbon Dioxide, increase within muscle cells. If levels of acid and carbon dioxide waste products build up, this will slow aerobic metabolism, resulting in less efficient metabolism.

If muscle fatigue sets in and the muscle is no longer able to sustain work efficiently, the muscle becomes overloaded resulting in micro trauma to the muscle fibers. If this fatigue and overloading is repetitive or long term in nature the resulting microtrauma becomes cumulative and pathology or injury occurs. Local muscle fatigue is suspect to contribute to work-related Cumulative Trauma Disorders. In order to avoid the adverse effects of muscle fatigue, a sufficient supply or flow of blood to the working muscles is critical.

Since aerobic metabolism generates almost 20 times as much ATP for energy as does anaerobic energy, the effects of muscle fatigue can be minimized by ensuring work load intensity is low enough so that adequate oxygenation, or blood flow to the active working muscles is achieved. If heavy workloads are required, they should be brief in duration, lasting less than a few seconds or minutes, which reduces the effects of prolonged anaerobic metabolism, and maximizes metabolic efficiency.

Summary
The most important factor in ergonomic job design or modification is to promote aerobic metabolism and adequate blood flow, resulting in a high metabolic efficiency. This will maintain adequate blood flow to working muscles, prevent fatigue and allow maximal performance. Dynamic muscle contractions are always preferred over static muscle loading situations. Work-rest cycles should provide sufficient recovery times to sufficiently perfuse active muscles with blood. Jobs should be designed or modified to minimize or reduce the requirements for static contractions, such as static grips, extended reaches and extreme postures.

Ways To Improve Energy Efficiency In Your Home

Heating and cooling bills account for over half of the monthly expenditure of American homeowners, when talking simply about fees associated with home ownership. This stems from a variety of causes, from the windows to poor insulation. The result is a home with an overactive HVAC system, drafts and other similar issues. Additionally, homeowners increase their carbon footprint due to the abundant use of energy to heat their home. Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane are expended with your HVAC system, which are attributed to global warming. Insulation can block some of these emissions, while reducing your electrical use can lower the rate of greenhouse gases as well. There are many ways that home owners can combat their energy use, so its important to create a budget to determine what you can afford and what will help your energy use the most in the long term. It can be expensive to make these changes to your home, but improving the energy efficiency in your home will not only reduce monthly expenditures, but increase the resale value of your home.

Windows and Doors

One of the biggest places that energy escapes is from the windows and doors, so its important to verify their status. If you live in an older house, chances are that the materials used during the building process are out of date and may simply require an upgrade. Look around the jamb and windowsill to determine whether the caulking may need a repair or inspect wooden frames for any warping, chips or other, more significant damage. Caulking is easy to repair, but more serious signs like condensation, frost on the inside of the windows and chips in the wood are more serious physical signs that you need new windows. Doors have a clearer cut sign; when you close the door if you can see any light coming from the outside into your home, its time to replace the door. Its either become damaged during its years of use or it was uninstalled properly. Lastly, if these items seem visually alright, you may simply want to feel the temperature near the questionable windows. For example, a window that feels frigid to stand in front of during the winter months is not energy efficient. And when that happens, an abundance of your homes energy is lost through these spaces.

Electronics

Every appliance that you own should be equipped with an energy-efficient tag or it needs to be replaced. Older models may be sturdy and reliable, but without the certification you may be spending too much on your energy bill. Its also important to unplug items like the toaster or your computer, when they are not in use. These items can increase your bills for no reason when they are plugged intot the wall. Its also important to not leave the refrigerator open for long periods of time, which make the air escape and the appliance work harder. Lastly, dont run the dishwasher until it is full, instead of just doing it one load at a time.

Insulation

One of the biggest places to lose energy is inefficient insulation. When properly installed, installation acts like a barrier between your home and the sun, keeping it cool in the summer. And during the winter months, it safely keeps the warmth inside your home. The result is a home with a constant, comfortable temperature. Talk with a professional insulation team to determine whether your home qualifies for an upgrade.

How to Improve Energy Efficiency in Houston, TX Homes

The best time of year to make home improvements on home efficiency is before cold weather arrives, especially in Houston, Texas. Doing an inspection for checks to find drafty areas of the home is beneficial in making the home more comfortable and in saving money. Determine what do-it-yourself and professional repairs need to be done to prevent warm air from escaping and cold air from invading.

Radiant Heat Barriers
Call reliable local insulation contractors in Houston, TX to determine what type of protection the attic needs. They may make several recommendations to prevent energy inefficiency in what is typically the least efficient room in the home. Foil radiant heat barriers placed in the attic further prevent heat from leaving the home. This means the heating system doesn’t have to work as hard to keep the house at a pleasant temperature level, leading to further energy savings. These can be installed quickly and, once again, saved money may make it pay for itself in the long run. Foil sheeting costs a little bit more than the typical spray-on Houston radiant barrier, but it is worth the extra investment for those who can afford it. It blocks about 97 percent of the Houston sun’s heat from entering the home in the hot summer.

Chimney
Keep the flue closed in the chimney when it is not in use. Not only does this prevent cold, blustery air from blowing in, it also prevents animals seeking shelter from roosting in the attic for the wintertime. Invest in glass or metal doors in front of the fireplace. Keep them closed when the fireplace is dormant. Use fireproof mortar as needed to fill in chinks in the bricks.

Doors
Add storm windows to exterior screen doors. If they already have them, be sure to lower or raise the windows as winter rolls in. The less chance cold air has to sneak into the home, the less warm air must be generated to combat it. Add a draft blocker in front of doors with gaps beneath them. This is not only useful for the exterior, but interior doors as well. A chilly room that is seldom used harbors cold air which escapes into the warm house.

Crawlspaces
Like attics, Houston crawlspaces can harbor cold air and allow warm air from the rooms above it to escape below. Add insulation to prevent air from escaping to unused portions of the home, such as the crawlspace and attic.

For True Blackout – Think Window Shades, Not Blinds

First off, just what is “blackout?” When it comes to window treatments, blackout means two things, one of which is more important than the other and the focus of this article. In the most basic sense, blackout means that the material used in the construction of a window treatments is totally opaque i.e., no light is transmitted through the fabric. The second refers to what is known as “blackout experience.” It is not enough that the material/fabric blocks light, it is also how the window treatments fits within your window casing. The best blackout experience includes the combination of an opaque window treatment (more on this later) that is made to the exact specifications (made to measure) of your window casing. Furthermore, it is important that the window treatment be mounted on the inside of your window (within the window casing), not outside mounted (like drapes which are hung over the window). Having a window treatment custom made to fit your window, and mounted on the inside minimizes the light gaps between the window treatment and the window casing. This combination, inside mounted with the right blackout window treatment, will block about 99% of all incoming light – thus proving a blackout experience.

The best blackout experience is achieved with window shades, not blinds. A lot of people are searching for blackout blinds, this is because most people call all window treatments, “blinds.” Technically a window blind has slats (think mini blinds) or vanes (think vertical blinds). Window blinds do not make the best blackout window treatments. Blinds have too many light gaps between all of those slats or vanes to be good at blocking light.

The best blackout window treatments are window shades. And the best of these are, blackout cellular shades, blackout roman shades and blackout woven wood shades. Blackout cellular shades are made with opaque fabrics, the last two come with a blackout liner. These three window shades, when custom ordered, will fit tight enough within your window frame to have almost no light gaps. As an added benefit, these three window shades will also provide additional insulation to your windows which will help lower heating and cooling bills. This is especially true with cellular shades which are the best insulating window treatment, period.

A last note on cellular shades from the standpoint of energy efficiency is that they can be purchased in single cell or double cell, the latter offering more insulation. There is one manufacturer of triple cell cellular shades (Hunter Douglas) but Hunter Douglas is no longer selling their products online, so they are fairly hard to find anymore – and also a lot more expensive if you have to buy from one of their signature stores.

Having “true” blackout window shades for bedrooms is kind of a no-brainer and it is of course one of their main applications. It is really nice to be able to close the shade and it’s dark. Think of sleeping in till “whenever” and your room is still dark though the sun is high in the sky. Blackout shades are also very popular for home theaters, media rooms and nurseries.

Nj Energy Audit Is First Step Toward Energy Efficiency

Through an NJ energy audit, you will achieve lower energy consumption and a whole lot better energy performance throughout your home. You can also considerably lower your energy bills and even improve the quality of air in your home. There is something more that an energy audit can give you. It can make you qualify for up to $5,000 dollar-for-dollar direct rebates that you can directly use for the overall upgrade of your energy-using materials. To top that, you can also qualify for $500 tax credits until December 2013 from the federal government. If your house is over 10 years old, you can qualify for this energy rebate. Other points for qualification are air conditioner compressor that is older than 8 years, furnace that has been more than 10 years in use, and water heater that is older than 5 years.

Energy Audit Process

Savings for you can only come from improved energy efficiency. It all starts with an energy audit from the experts, such as an NJ energy audit. A highly trained energy auditing technician will give your home a thorough technical inspection including your furnace, attic, and crawlspace areas. The technician will also inspect your water heater, appliances, and air conditioning units. The findings and the resulting recommendations will be included in a report that will be subsequently submitted by the technicians auditing company to the New Jersey Clean Energy Program.

Improved Home Heating

An upgrade to your home heating is one of the best ways to make energy use more efficient in your home. These upgrade and improvements can be done by such companies that perform heating repair in South Jersey. The result is an overall efficiency upgrade to your energy-consuming systems at home. These technical experts professionally inspect your home heating system and provide recommendations for its improvement. Some technical recommendations include the use of a better thermostat for better heat control, installation of more thermostats for heat control in individual rooms, and change into a new and energy-efficient furnace.

Efficiency Lowers Energy Costs

Only when heating and air conditioning appliances are repaired, improved, and upgraded can we be assured that energy efficiency can be achieved. Likewise, only energy efficiency can bring about reduced energy bills and costs. One of the best ways to achieve all these is through the repair of heating appliances by professionally trained companies that accomplish heating repair in South Jersey. These companies and their technicians do the most effective repairs after a thorough inspection of your heating appliances. The result is improved quality of air in your home and reduced energy costs.